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(1) Automotive Lubricants
(2) Industrial lubricants
Machine oil (high oil), weaving oil, spindle oil, Road-rail oil, steel rolling oil, gas turbine oil, compressor oil, refrigeration oil, cylinder oil, ship oil, gear oil, machine pressure gear oil, axle oil, Instrument oil, vacuum pump oil
2. Lubricant specifications
Viscosity Index: The viscosity of oil varies with temperature, the extent of the oil viscosity changes with the standard degree of contrast to the relative value is called viscosity index. The higher the value of a number, indicating the less affected by temperature.
Viscosity: liquid by the external force moves, its molecules produced by the resistance is called viscosity.
Flash point: oil under specified conditions, the steam heated to its mixture with the surrounding air to form, when the contact with a flame when the minimum temperature flash fire.
Pour point: refers to the cooling of solid oil, tilting to place heating oil began to move to the lowest temperature.
SAE series: American Society of Automotive Engineers (viscosity) 0W 5W 10W 15W 20W 25W 10 20 30 40 50 60
API Series: American Petroleum Institute (quality category) SA SB SC SD SE SF SG SH SJ EC
Gear Oil SAE Grade 75W 80W 85W 90W 90 140 250 GL-1 GL-2 GL-3 GL-4 GL-5
3. Lubricant additives
(1) detergent-dispersant: adsorption of oxidation products, be dispersed in oil. Planktonic components by the anti-oxidation, anti-corrosion, combination, synthesis
(2) Antioxidant corrosion resistance agent: To improve the security of oil oxidation - to prevent metal oxidation, catalytic oxidation rate of oil cut off from the old slow-to-metal contact with acidic materials generated protective film with anti-wear
(3) anti-wear agents: In the high-temperature part of the friction surface reacts with the metal melting point is low,
(4) oil-based agents: are polar molecules with the active substance can be adsorbed on metal surfaces to form a solid film lubrication conditions at the border can prevent direct contact of metal friction surface.
(5) Tackifier: also known as the thickener, mainly poly-type Minamata a very high molecular compound, tackifiers can not only increase the oil viscosity and improve oil viscosity-temperature properties.
(6) anti-rust agent: some polar compounds, the metal has a strong absorption edge, can be the interface of metal and oil to form close to cut off water adsorbed film, moisture and acidic substances erosion; anti-rust agent was also can prevent oxidation, to prevent the formation of acidic oxides, which play a role in anti-rust.
(7) Anti-foam agents: to make air bubbles can quickly spill of oil, loss of stability and easy to break down, thus shortening the duration of the presence of air bubbles.
4. Oil-based knowledge
What is the lubricant
Lubricant base oil and additives is strictly made by a certain percentage of the deployment. The main additives are: anti-wear agents, antioxidants, clean dispersant.
Function of lubricant
(1) lubrication and reduce friction
The role of lubricants is to lubricate the various parts within the engine, and a layer of film formed between the two surfaces to reduce friction, so that the operation more smoothly.
(2) sealing the role of
Oil must be between the piston and the cylinder form an effective seal to prevent vapor leakage and outside pollutants immersion.
(3) The cooling effect
In the operation process, the mechanical and the mechanical heat generated by the mutual friction or heat, cooling and lubricating oil's role is to reduce the engine temperature.
(4) Cleaning of
The parts in the combustion of harmful impurities and less than insoluble material removed, so that these contaminants from the lubrication of the surface velocity and to avoid sludge formation.
(5), anti-corrosion features
Lubricants can provide access to parts of the film complete separation would reduce the mechanical wear contacts and opportunities, to avoid corrosion of metal surfaces being.
Therefore, SPC has the following characteristics of lubricants to meet the above-mentioned functions:
(1) high viscosity index performance
Lubricant viscosity, viscosity index is a measure of the temperature change in value, the greater its value, the smaller the viscosity change with temperature and thus able to adapt to a wider operating temperature range.
(2) Low-volatile
In the high-temperature operation time, must still maintain a low volatility, reducing oil consumption, thereby reducing the frequency of lubrication.
(3) Cleaning of
By adding detergent and dispersing agents, lubricants can effectively prevent the piston ring cards tight, and the prevention of sludge in the piston ring and cylinder, etc. accumulation.
(4) A good filter as to avoid blocking the filter lubricating oil, which can provide smooth asphalt recycling system to ensure that lubricating oil detergency and superior cooling nature.
(5) Anti-foam properties to avoid the formation of bubbles in the lubricating oil, and to film rupture, thereby reducing the oxidation rate of lubricating oil and reduce oil consumption.
5. Classification of lubricants
(1) According to the base oil classification
According to the base oil classification, Yi Bai lubricants are divided into two types of mineral base oils is used, plus the effects of various additives are blended; the other one is produced using synthetic chemical methods, this oil properties better than mineral oils, but some were very expensive.
(2) According to the viscosity classification
According to viscosity classification, SPC is divided into single-type viscosity lubricant oil and two kinds of double-viscosity oil. Single viscosity oil is used for the engine operation in a temperature range of lubricants applied. However, if the engine temperature exceeds the specified temperature range, lubricating oil will not be able to provide adequate lubrication. Single viscosity lubricants are classified as SAE30, 40, and 50 (SAE Society of Automotive Engineers for the United States the English abbreviation, followed by the number of lubricating oil viscosity range directions) double-viscosity lubricant applied to a larger temperature range, although the temperature change, able to maintain its viscosity lubricant. The lubricant contains the characteristics at low temperature, but not as a single-type viscosity of lubricating oil, at high temperatures to become too thin. So, when you see the product description on the instructions, such as SAE15W/40, means that the lubricant is a compound viscosity, SPC products are mostly double-viscosity lubricant oil.
(3) The use classification
According to use classification, SPC oil into gasoline engine and diesel engine lubricating oil. Automotive oil to API / S * diesel oil to API / C * said that if the marked APIS * / C *, means that the lubricating oil for the diesel-gasoline General (API for the American Petroleum Institute, the English abbreviation, is today the world's most universal adoption of oil painting sub-levels of authority). Its automotive lubricants grade SA SB ... SH SJ EC grade diesel vehicle lubricants CA CB CC ... CG CG-4.
In addition there are motorcycle-specific lubricants lubricants SPC. That apply to balance two motorcycle TB level, TC level and outboard used in BIATC-WII level, there are four sections of high value for a motorcycle lubricants.
6. How to choose a suitable lubricant Yi Bai
We have already learned about the SPC in front of lubricating oil product specifications, then we can under the circumstances of their vehicles on the types of lubricants has.
First of all, consideration should be given the choice of the viscosity of the lubricant.
Select the viscosity of lubricating oil to be based on the engine working conditions, usually the main consideration:
1, temperature: often at high temperature conditions, it should be selected high viscosity; often at low temperature conditions, it should be selected low viscosity.
2, load: work load large, high-viscosity. Scientific and technological progress in the field of lubricant additives, so that lubricating oil viscosity - temperature characteristics has been greatly improved, resulting in a double-viscosity synthetic lubricants, such as SPC Oil 5W-50, which at low temperatures of minus 30 ℃, are still very good flow properties, viscosity at high temperatures not lower too much, to ensure adequate oil film strength.
Secondly, consideration should be given the choice of grade lubricants.
At present, the western state shipments, SE SF-grade lubricants have virtually stopped the production and use, while the domestic variety of reasons, some areas are still popular with low-level oil. This is in fact our car a short lifespan, high maintenance costs, an important reason. So we recommend the level of lubricating oil when the oil than the current use of the domestic habits of a class, the purpose of doing so is to hope that the majority of the drivers friends will correct use of lubricants, and thus good care of your car to improve the use of motor vehicles life, save maintenance costs. Now, we select a representative vehicle models to illustrate the method of choice grade lubricants: Optional SE minivan general level; Xiali SF level and scale are selectable; Santana optional SG level and above; Honda optional SH level and above; Ford SJ to be elected the world's top class.
However, there are the following vehicles should be raised 1-2 Rank:
(1) driving in the city, due to frequent traffic jams, stop-go, the engine operating temperature instability, easy to coke, speed up wear and tear (70% of engine wear occurs in start-up phase);
(2) long-distance high-speed driving, the engine a long time in a high-temperature state;
(3) rapid driving, the engine speed quickly pulled requirements, switching frequency and fast file, suffered mechanical resistance to changes in competition play;
(4) loaded high-load driving, such as cars, trucks overloaded, when the engine to breathe more oil in order to operate, driving slow, a bad heat, the general deterioration of oil will lead to quick deterioration failure.
7. Oil knowledge
(1) what kind of oil can also be referred to as oil?
Engine oil, motor oil
(2) gas oil in the SC SD SE SF SG SH SJ EC what the meaning of diesel oil in the CC CD CE CF-4 CG-4 mean?
SC SD SE SF SH SJ EC is the American Petroleum Institute on the quality and grade of gasoline engine oil classification; CC CD CE CF-4 CG-4 CH-4 CI-4 diesel engine oil is the API on the quality and grade of classification. This is a level of use of machine performance and quality of higher grades of the order.
(3) What is multi-level internal combustion engine oil, what good performance?
Multi-level internal combustion engine oil, such oil viscosity range across several viscosity levels, summer and winter can be common in a certain area, is the oil may be used all year round. Such as 15W/40 10W/30. Multi-grade oil has good low-temperature startup performance, the temperature is low, so that a smooth start the engine and prevent engine wear, save fuel.
(4) 15W/40 the W mean?
Oil in the viscosity grade of W is the Winter (winter) and prefix, means the oil has good low-temperature startup performance, the use of either winter and summer, is a multi-grade oil.
(5) Why turbocharged diesel engine to use high-grade diesel engine oil?
Turbocharged diesel engine power of big, heavy loads, working temperature is high, easy to produce coke and coking, high-grade diesel oil has a strong security, high-temperature oxidation resistance and good detergency, which can effectively prevent the piston wear and tear, ordinary diesel is difficult supercharged diesel engine to meet the demanding requirements of working condition.
(6) Vehicles used in vehicles, equipment, gear oils which parts?
Used in automobiles, tractors, construction machinery vehicles, manual gearbox, differentials, rear axle gear boxes and steering bodies.
(7) What is the gas / diesel common internal combustion engine oil?
Internal combustion engine oil used for both general-purpose gasoline engine, could be used in diesel engines, its development mainly to solve the gasoline and diesel fuel mixed fleet confusing issue. For example: SF / CC engine used for both require the use of SF-class gas oil for gasoline vehicles, but also for the CC grade diesel engine oils require the use of diesel vehicles.
(8) Ho select the appropriate viscosity grades?
a according to the characteristics of internal combustion engines and vehicles, namely, the oil load and speed selection. Load high-speed devices typically use a low viscosity lubricating oil. Light load, high speed equipment generally used in smaller oil viscosity;
b according to high and low temperatures are selected oil: air temperature is high (summer) the choice of viscosity of lubricant; temperature is low (winter) use a smaller oil viscosity.
c can also be worn under the status of the engine choice, the new engine should use low viscosity of the oil, while wearing high (gap increases) the engine should use the oil viscosity.
(9) car to take Lanyan What is the reason?
The main reason is that the piston and cylinder wear serious, gas ring fracture, pull-cylinder so that burning oil, engine oil should be promptly repaired before use.
(10) filling oil is better?
No, adding oil when the oil must be maintained at slightly below the line on the ruler scale is appropriate, when the oil volume is insufficient, oil pump are exposed to air, bearing and shaft friction at first class will be less because of the poor lubrication oil lead to increased wear and tear, or even burning bush incident, filling excess oil, although the possibility of reducing the burning bush, but the engine crank handle at work, connecting rod big end violently stirred the engine oil not only increase the internal power losses but also because of splashed on the cylinder walls of oil increased, prone to the phenomenon of burning oil smoke and oil increased internal friction caused by high oil temperature, engine oil can lead to premature oxidation.
(11) when the replacement of oil?
Can be observed on the oil-foot oil, the following conditions need to be replaced:
a machine stains turbidity, transparency is low;
b machine stains black, dark black;
c oil containing metal powder;
d oil contains a lot of impurities;
e hand-twist-twist oil-free lubrication sense of belonging;
f oil contains more foam;
g pale oil, indicating more oil, moisture, there is emulsion phenomenon;
h after the vehicle encountered wading, it is possible the case of oil flooded.
(12) how the engine black smoke going on?
a mixture too thick, adjust the carburetor to increase the amount of air supply, so that the mixture thinning;
b valve has coke, will cause valve wear, sticky piston rings, cylinder wear black smoke;
c ignition timing are not allowed.
(13) How to check the proper use of oil-foot oil oil level?
To find a flat at the car stop is good, tighten hand brake, start the engine to reach normal operating temperature to switch off the engine, so that oil flow back into the oil at the end of light, the next time you remove the oil-foot, dry insert their oil after the oil check bit.
(14) how to identify the quality of lubricating oil?
There are six suggestions:
a piston top, side, ring groove of the coke level;
b valve system wear and tear;
c cylinder wear and tear;
d bearing wear and tear;
e oil metamorphic grade;
f oil in particular, multi-grade oil shear stability.
(15) What are advantages of multi-grade oil?
a year round;
b cold-start and smooth;
c increase fuel economy;
d to reduce oil consumption;
e reduction of moving parts wear;
f to provide a good low-temperature lubrication.


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